[4][11][16][19][20], Because it is systemic, persistent and highly toxic to honey bees, the Canadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency has requested additional data to fully assess the potential effects of chronic exposure of clothianidin, resulting from its potential movement into plant pollen and nectar. [28] Beginning in 2006, beekeepers in the United States began to report unexplained losses of hives — 30 percent and upward — leading to a phenomenon called colony collapse disorder (CCD). Get the best control and the longest-lasting residual out there with Arena® Insecticide. The clothianidin in Poncho® 600 seed treatment provides broad-spectrum efficacy against a range of soil and plant pests, with faster-acting protection than the competition, such as products featuring thiamethoxam. 楁 �cl��e��u�:?��������!�_?L���`F$�g+���05{�(��r�1���z���`��R���+�����(�t�Xe�K�0�.�SLX�WS�3`Ǧ���sy�Y]l�C}6y��+ش�i�V��������C#�t�cw�-G8�U%S�th���-��l��Ѕ��zu$�y���=�kz��Yd�� �N!o�D�l�/ Seed treatment uses of clothianidin, corn in particular, have been revoked or suspended in Germany, Italy and Slovenia. Clothianidin is a neonicotinoid insecticide that was developed jointly by Takeda Chemical Industries and Bayer. Bayer or Takeda) request field uses involving direct application of clothianidin to the land surface. <> Clothianidin is Bayer’s successor product to imidacloprid, which recently went off patent. 12 0 obj [4][8][9][10][11][12][13], Although nicotine has been used as a pesticide for over 200 years it degraded too rapidly in the environment and lacked the selectivity to be very useful in large-scale agricultural situations. ���֨�Wh%�5 m�h|�X���C���I?biշm��Dє1�,��6߉��l�_8SFG��yR$�Lr�^D3g�pK�H�j����R��57O�}�Q��M5b鼧"KgS,]\�k�k�;+vfM�������Ѹb����^D�O�Z��?�}A�\}&h�O����h�=��7Dm��"������h�������n���5�La}~Q��8�E�S�TtD�Yk�G�v�q�#�~yA!�O������~���~ͭ���#�� Q��]M�C�"��ұ�,�����Ă�uVF�z,������+*7��iQ֥�I#��Ldی��vpV˓��>��-��!�n�{���tbN>�p�U���q���I��S,��`g ^h)V���-�Sb��/���\�}�ۦTꕋ�]xGE�c�c�`2���|P�^������3O�A�wb��ۗjq�r�໿��T���)�y�׿���{g�mVz�Z�p%y��lϐ4 4������a�6a^0�h��. Insecticide and Clutch 50 WDG Insecticide, containing technical grade clothianidin, is acceptable. EC 433-460-1. A�^K%���0�����Ȍ�_�Q�m0���X'VN�Ȓu��y �Q���qf�VR�V�� 9 0 obj The cause of CCD remains under debate, but scientific consensus is beginning to emerge suggesting that there is no one cause but rather a combination of factors including lack of foraging plants, infections, breeding, and pesticides—with none catastrophic on their own, but having a synergistic effect when occurring in combination. CLOTHIANIDIN INSECTICIDE is a broad spectrum insecticide for control of a wide spectrum of insect pests infesting turfgrass, potato, pome fruit, grape, strawberries,cucurbit vegetables and stone fruit. Neonicotinoids also replaced older pesticides that were harmful to humans and other mammals. endobj However, EPA assessments show that exposure to treated seeds through ingestion may result in chronic toxic risk to non-endangered and endangered small birds (e.g., songbirds). The research showed that the insecticides were present at high concentrations in waste talc that was exhausted from farm machinery during planting and that is left outside after cleaning the planting equipment. [67] In April 2018, the member states of the European Union decided to ban the three main neonicotinoids (clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) for all outdoor uses. [33] Since clothianidin is a systemic pesticide that is taken up by the plant, there is also potential for toxic chronic exposure resulting in long-term effects to bees and other pollinators from clothianidin residue in pollen and nectar. <> thiamethoxam + 8 g a.i. Workers are protected from clothianidin exposure through requirements for personal protective equipment, such as long-sleeve shirts, gloves, long pants, boots, and face mask or respirators as appropriate. Clothianidin is currently registered with the U.S. EPA for use as an insecticide for seed treatment u,; ce on corn, rapeseed, and canola. ����H/�F;����uֈ�\����� [11], Honey bees pollinate crops responsible for about a third of the human diet; about $224 billion worth of crops worldwide. Clothianidin belongs to the chemical class of insecticides known as neonicotinoids or chloronicotinyls, which interfere with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the postsynaptic membrane. <> USEPA's analysis of nine pollinator field studies submitted concluded that three were invalid, so EPA did not use the data they provided in making its regulatory decision for clothianidin. �'t'���5kJǭ���sTƮ��?��|q~׮��v���1N��S�~H���?�{���լ�� 1�6�GQœ�v�V����G�yM�q$���[/��GY�����2q�#N>�#N{ڢ��җ�]���? <> Honey bees are thought to possibly be affected by such chemicals, which are known to work their way through the plant up into the flowers and leave residues in the nectar and pollen that bees forage on. EPA classified the remainder as supplemental, generally because Bayer AG conducted the studies without EPA first approving the protocols. Toxicity varies depending on whether the exposure occurs on a short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic) basis. However, in response to concerns raised by bee keepers, in November the EPA released a memorandum in which they stated that some of the studies submitted did not appear to be adequate and the unconditional registration was withdrawn. ����J�kZ�(k��DWK\�o�|�-W8n�V The characteristics of neonicotinoids include a good systemic action and high insecticidal activity against sucking insect pests such as Hemiptera and Thysanoptera. 1 0 obj distributed in the United States must be registered with EPA. )(�O�QEM�O/)�Ï���ᔎ����n�v��̀G�:싂�`.5����l��eC6��=�>#VJ:�$48�O� 9�Ɇ3N�l8c��׫2�ƍ��,��o��X�BfD���TI9U�G4�LU��a�8���N���п��)�EP�O+�:�Q`�} ent] clothianidin + 8 g a.i. pesticide law and are generally associated with acute poisoning of bees from pesticide dust being blown off of treated seeds, especially corn, and onto nearby farms where bees were performing pollinator services. <> 3 0 obj [27], According to the EPA, clothianidin is practically non-toxic to test bird species that were fed relatively large doses of the chemical on an acute basis. The date was postponed to May 2005 and they also granted Bayer the permission it had sought to conduct its study on canola in Canada, instead of on corn in the United States. Clothianidin 107 5.7 CLOTHIANIDIN (238) TOXICOLOGY Clothianidin is the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)–approved name for E)-1-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-3-methyl-2-nitroguanidine (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry [IUPAC])(Chemical Abstracts Service [CAS] No. Overseas registration and approved label instructions Clothianidin products are registered for use in the European Union (E.U. C\����Z�8`>|� r��6�����&o؄l�z���-u�3g.q̠]�)���ԁ��V;��ǟ�gO;��������x%iQ%��5���K����9����! The specific length of residual control depends on environmental factors, plant growth, application rate and degree … Neonicotinoids are a class of insecticides that are chemically similar to nicotine, which has been used as a pesticide since the late 1700s. The specific uses approved in Canada are detailed on the labels of Clothianidin Insecticide, Pest Control Products Act Registration Number 29384 and Clutch 50 WDG Insecticide, Pest Control Products Act Registration Number 29382. [11], In the 2003 EPA report it was stated that although no water monitoring studies had been conducted, due to the extreme mobility and persistence of clothianidin in the environment, clothianidin has the properties of a chemical which could lead to widespread groundwater contamination should the registrant (e.g. However, studies published in 2012 show that neonicotinoid dust released at planting time may persist in nearby fields for several years and be taken up into non-target plants, which are then foraged by bees and other insects. However, in a 2012 statement the EPA reported that they are not aware of any data demonstrating that bee colonies are subject to elevated losses due to long-term exposure when clothianidin products are used at authorized rates. ��V�hU���ўPK�з{Z(�� 8 0 obj Worst-case scenario estimates indicate that if applied at the maximum rate repeatedly over years, clothianidin has the potential to accumulate in the top 15 cm of soil. ACTIVE CONSTITUENT: 200 g/L CLOTHIANIDIN For the control of aphids, mirids and other sucking insect pests on cotton; rust thrips and weevil borer on bananas, and soil applied treatment for the control of canegrubs in sugarcane and leaf eating insects in Eucalypt seedlings and young trees. [51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58] Supplemental studies are ones that don't definitively answer uncertainties but still provide some data that might be useful in characterizing risk. endobj [41], A 2011 Congressional Research Report describing some of the reasons why scientists believe honey bee colonies are being affected by CCD reported that the United States Department of Agriculture had concluded in 2009, "it now seems clear that no single factor alone is responsible for the malady." <> In pneumatic drilling machines, seeds are sucked in, causing the erosion of fragments of the insecticide shell, which are then expelled with a current of air. <> 4 0 obj Information from standard tests and field studies, as well as incident reports involving other neonicotinoid insecticides (e.g., imidacloprid) suggest the potential for long term toxic risk to honey bees and other beneficial insects. 15 0 obj Es wurde von Takeda Chemical Industries und der Bayer AG gemeinsam um 2000 entwickelt und 2004 in Deutschland unter dem Produktnamen Poncho zugelassen. Sumitomo licensed clothianidin to Arysta LifeScience for soil and foliar uses in the US and Mexico in 2004. It is moderately soluble and volatile but has a high potential for leaching to groundwater. It is, however, a nurotoxicant. Active Ingredient: Active Ingredients: Clothianidin 0.25%, Bifenthrin 0.125% Insecticide Mode of Action: 4A, 3A Insecticide Class: Neonictinoids, Pyrethroids EPA Signal Word: CAUTION / PRECATUIONApplication Rate Range: (see label) Container Size(s): 30 Lbs. endobj “Pesticide Fact Sheet Name of Chemical: Clothianidin.” United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substnaces, 30 May 2003. In 2012, several peer reviewed independent studies were published showing that neonicotinoids, including clothianidin, had previously undetected routes of exposure affecting bees including through dust, pollen, and nectar; that sub-nanogram toxicity resulted in failure to return to the hive without immediate lethality, the primary symptom of colony collapse disorder; and showing environmental persistence in agricultural irrigation channels and soil. The chemical may be used to protect plants against a wide variety of agricultural pests in many countries, of which the following are mentioned in citable English-language sources: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Ireland, Japan, Korea, Lithuania, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, UK, and the United States. *&5&9@��9.���E7eX1j]� &y�'3BEt7W���:�ve��f�����YLũA�8&� Clothianidin Poncho 600 44309 205510-53-8 205510-92-5 210880-92-5 2003 Insecticide Nitroguanidine subgroup of nicotinoids Bayer Corporation 2. For mice, acute oral toxicity was moderate to high. x��]YoI�~7���O���(�q��h4 �e[3�VU�ј�jY��-y%Mc��/ɼY���R�Nc�:H#��dux��r�u{������������/�χ������JGOwo���/���7]jG�7o��WQi�������Ļ8���b���7 ��΢_�߾I�_�]^�����ϋ�ߗ�-�n�<0�ߖ��>���|V���,�^m���� Clothianidin and other neonicotinoids were developed to last longer than nicotine, which is more toxic and which breaks down too quickly in the environment. Eight nations voted against the motion, including the British government which argued that the science was incomplete. <> XM�g�P�x]�A����n Clothianidin is an insecticide developed by Takeda Chemical Industries and Bayer AG. All seed treated with this product must be conspicuously coloured at the time of treatment. The accident was found to be the result of improper planting procedures and the weather. However, regulatory authorities around the globe emphasize that when used according to the label instructions, clothianidin residues on food are not expected to exceed safe levels (as defined by each nation's laws and regulations). Bayer did not complete the study on time and asked for an extension. [36][37][38][39] To reduce the risk to pollinators from acute exposure to clothianidin sprays, label instructions prohibit the use of these products when crops or weeds are in bloom and pollinators are nearby, but in the U.S. label instructions do not require the use of a "sticker", a sticking agent meant to reduce dust from treated seeds during planting. Quick overview Arena 0.25 G Granular Clothianidin Insecticide Provides the best control and the longest-lasting residual out there. Similar to thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, it is a neonicotinoid. SAMPLE LABELS OF PESTICIDES CONTAINING CLOTHIANIDIN. Their review concluded, "A high acute risk to honey bees was identified from exposure via dust drift for the seed treatment uses in maize, oilseed rape and cereals. Clothianidin users are also required to monitor the weather and not use the chemical or seeds treated with it on windy days or when rain is forecast. To thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, and pesticides., Ltd to others Gaucho ) treatment information described under the Poncho brand various crops including grapes of SAMPLE of! And uncertainties for which clothianidin coats seeds that take up the pesticide via the roots as the plant.... Leaching to groundwater uses involving direct Application of clothianidin, corn in particular, have been or. Uncertainties for which clothianidin manufacturers must provide data pesticides CONTAINING clothianidin Sites: clothianidin is alternative... 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